Prostate cancer, or prostate carcinoma, is a common disease in the male population. In recent years, the disease has become relatively "younger" and men are at risk from the age of 35. With age, the probability of the formation of a malignant tumor increases hundreds of times. As it turned out in the course of the research, prostate cancer is more susceptible to men of the black race, the lowest percentage of the disease was detected in residents of South Asia and Japan. This year, an estimated 191,930 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer (Prostate Cancer: Statistics 2020)
Prostate carcinoma is a malignant tumor that develops in the prostate. The disease occurs only in men because women do not have this gland.
Prostate carcinoma belongs to the category of tumor lesions that are prone to rapid spread through the lymphatic system. This pathology differs in that it rapidly affects the bone system, after which not only the prostate tissue is adversely affected. In the advanced stage of the disease, the patient suddenly has fractured.
Since the symptoms of the disease have similarities with other pathologies, only a doctor will help you correctly determine this diagnosis and explain what a carcinoma is. How long the patient will live will depend on the degree of intensity of cancer development.
Adenocarcinoma cells spread in the following ways:
- through the bloodstream;
- metastasis through the lymphatic system;
- ingrowing into the tissues of nearby organs.
The histological examination allows you to determine the cancer cells in the gland, what is carcinoma should know all patients after 45-50 years with prostate pathologies.
Factors that influence the formation of a malignant process in the prostate:
- Age-related changes in the body after 40 years. The disease has a hormonal nature, so any violations of hormone production can provoke pathology.
- A hereditary predisposition is another common factor. Especially if one of the closest relatives had a prostate adenoma. The risk of cancer increases with daily work with petroleum products that contain harmful carcinogenic substances.
- Most often, patients are faced with the manifestation of small-acinar carcinoma. Such a tumor is formed in several places and then combines into a large neoplasm.
Acinar carcinoma in the advanced stage is visually visible. This tumor is characterized by severe symptoms.
The prognosis for prostate cancer depends on the stage of development of the neoplasm and the degree of its growth. The diagnosis of prostate carcinoma should be carried out as early as possible. The study includes the appointment of General blood and urine tests, as well as ultrasound.
Signs of carcinoma are similar to other pathological changes in the genitourinary system, so it is difficult to detect.
The most common symptoms are:
- Urine with blood impurities. This disease occurs because cancer cells grow into neighboring organs and damage blood vessels. At the third and fourth stages of the prostate, metastases spread to the rectum, which causes stool with blood particles.
- There is an active secretion of mucus from the urethral canal. This process is associated with a violation of the integrity of the prostate capsule.
- Stage 2 of Oncology is characterized by the appearance of pain, which increases during development. The pain is localized in the groin, perineum, and also appears when urinating.
Further symptoms depend on the extent of metastasis. If cancer cells enter the kidneys, then there is swelling of the lower extremities, and there is also a problem of excreting urine from the body.
Treatment of prostate carcinoma is carried out by the following methods:
- Hormone therapy is performed to suppress the production of androgens (zytiga, avodart). Taking medications is divided into two stages to stop the development of the tumor, and then as additional therapy before surgery. The drugs have an effective effect for several months, then the effectiveness decreases.
- In the advanced form of the disease, to prevent the development of androgens, an operation is performed to remove the testicles.
- Surgical intervention to eliminate carcinoma is relevant in the absence of metastasis. Depending on the indications, laparoscopy or cavity surgery is prescribed.
- Radiation therapy is performed using isotopes that are injected inside.
Even the second stage of the disease is difficult to treat.
Read more about the treatment of carcinoma in our article
Prevention of prostate carcinoma includes the following measures:
- Completely abandon all kinds of greasy dishes and alcoholic beverages. The menu should include foods rich in zinc, as well as fresh vegetables and fruits.
- No physical activity is allowed after the operation. However, you should gradually perform simple exercises and increase your level of physical activity.
- To restore urination, you will have to use a special drainage system for several months.
Read more about the Prevention of prostate carcinoma in our article